How Does Peplau’S Theory Link Spirituality And Nursing Care? (TOP 5 Tips)

What is Peplau’s theory of interpersonal nursing?

  • nursing departments implement Peplau’s (1952/1991) theory of interpersonal nursing as a theoretical framework to guide nursing practice. The theory of interpersonal relations was developed as tool to teach nurses the importance of good interpersonal relations in any practice location, including hospitals.

What is the primary focus of Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relationships in nursing care?

In the theory of interpersonal relations in nursing, Peplau emphasized patients’ experiences and the effect that nurse-patient relationships have on those experiences.

How does Peplau’s theory apply to nursing care?

Peplau’s theory teaches the nurse how to interact with his or her patient so that the patient feels more in control of his treatment which can also give him the sense that the treatment can be done without the assistance of the nurse once the patient is discharged from her care.

What was Hildegard Peplau’s major contribution to nursing?

She made a major contribution to nursing science, professional nursing, and, of course, to the psychiatric nursing specialty through development of the Interpersonal Relations paradigm, a mid-range theory that has influenced the importance with which the nurse-patient relationship is regarded.

How is Peplau’s theory used today?

Peplau’s Theory relates to modern concepts such as motivational interviewing, client self-management, making informed decisions, and client engagement (D’Antionio, Beeber, Sills & Naegle, 2014).

How does Peplau’s theory benefit the nurse quizlet?

This theory emphasized the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice and emphasizes the need for a partnership between nurse and client as opposed to the client passively receiving treatment. The theory explains the purpose of nursing is to help others identify their felt difficulties.

What is the first step for the nurse when applying Peplau’s interpersonal relations in nursing?

Peplau explains 4 phases such as: Orientation: Nurse and patient come together as strangers; meeting initiated by patient who expresses a “felt need”; work together to recognize, clarify and define facts related to need.

Which phase of the nurse-patient relationship is active listening most important according to peplau theory?

In which phase of the nurse-patient relationship is active listening the most important according to Peplau’s theory? D. During the planning phase.

How does peplau define health?

Peplau defines Man as an organism who strives in his own way to reduce the tension generated by needs. Health is defined as a word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal and community living.

What is Hildegard Peplau best known for?

Hildegard Peplau, the “mother of psychiatric nursing,” was a true pioneer in the development of the theory and practice of psychiatric and mental health nursing. She was a professor emerita at Rutgers University, College of Nursing.

Why is peplau the mother of psychiatric nursing?

Hildegard Peplau is remembered by nurses worldwide as the “mother of psychiatric nursing.” Her scope of influence transcended her psychiatric nursing specialty and had a profound effect on the nursing profession, nursing science, and nursing practice.

What is nursing According to Joyce Travelbee?

Description of the theory Travelbee believed nursing is accomplished through human-to-human relationships that begin with the original encounter and then progress through stages of emerging identities, developing feelings of empathy, and later feelings of sympathy.

What did Dorothea Orem contribute to nursing?

In the nursing field, Dorothea Orem was one such influential thinker. Born in 1914, Orem worked all over the country as an expert nurse until her death in 2007. Her 1971 theory of self-care deficit is still taught today in nursing schools, and she helped shape the holistic approach nurses now take toward patient care.

What are the 4 phases of the nurse patient relationship according to peplau?

Hildegarde Peplau describes four sequential phases of a nurse-client relationship, each characterized by specific tasks and interpersonal skills: preinteraction; orientation; working; and termination.

Is Peplau’s theory a grand theory?

Over time, we used both Peplau’s and Rogers’ models in mental health nursing to conceptualize and structure care. We found both theories complementary; one serving as a grand theory providing a conceptual base, and the other as a middle-range theory providing a practical base for nursing practice.

What is the best way to describe Watsons Carative factors?

These carative factors are described as consisting of: cultivating the practice of loving-kindness and equanimity toward self and others as foundational to caritas consciousness; being authentically present; enabling, sustaining and honoring the faith, hope and the deep belief system and the inner-subjective life world

Nightingale And Peplau’s Theories Of Nursing – 898 Words

  • Nursing is responsible for providing comprehensive care to all patients, whether sick or well, in a variety of situations. Nursing is both a science and an art, and compassion is the most important aspect in the profession. Nursing is more about the nurse-patient connection than it is about procedures and tasks. I believe in providing a high-quality, holistic environment in which my patients can live in an atmosphere of respect and friendliness while also having their cultural (Te Taha Whanau), psychological (Te Taha Hinengaro), physical (Te Taha Tinana), and spiritual (Te Taha Wairua) needs met in a compassionate manner. Nursing theories give a framework for nurses to use in their day-to-day clinical practice. In the words of CrispTaylor (2013), “Theories offer a basis of knowledge for the guidance and delivery of nursing care.”
  • The basics of nursing establish beliefs and behaviors, and the application of knowledge, skills, and attitudes helps to reduce the severity of various health issues, as defined by the principles of nursing. The objective of understanding the fundamentals is to promote and enhance health, as well as to preserve the overall quality of life of those who are familiar with it. The nursing theorists Finkelman and Kenner (2010) describe Florence Nightingale as a trailblazer who introduced holistic care into nursing practice and pioneered the art of nursing, which they define as a nursing quality that places the person in the best possible light for healing. Florence Nightingale is remembered as a woman who changed the course of nursing theory and practice. It is Nightingale’s notion that healing occurs when the complete person is treated, with the environment being used to encourage wellbeing. Jean Watson’s idea of caring was extremely intriguing, but I have my own thoughts about nursing that I would want to share with you. Nursing care is individualized to the unique individual in a holistic manner, curing the person as a whole, including. My Opinions on Nursing and the Profession What it means to be a nurse is something I think about a lot. “Caring” is the first word that springs to mind while thinking about this. The primary responsibility of a nurse is to promote health and avoid sickness, which.
  • Safety Nursing is a profession with profound humanist origins that is sincerely concerned about the people who entrust their care to them, particularly those who are ill or suffering from a disease. Its underpinnings provide support for a practice in which quality has emerged as a critical component of the profession. The nursing approach to improving the quality and efficacy of a patient’s care has been around for a long time. When it comes to quality, nothing is more essential than health. As a part of the health care team, the nursing staff is responsible for developing a culture of quality and joining initiatives with a proactive attitude. Quality in nursing care is a complicated idea that incorporates assistance that is in line with scientific advancement and development. …
  • Philosophy is described as the “values and beliefs surrounding the nature of work generated from a mission and the rights and duties of the individuals engaged.”
  • (Yoder-Wise, 2015, p. 386). For over a century, nursing theorists have established statements of ideas about nursing and values that are utilized as the foundation for nursing thoughts and acts. Nursing theories that take a holistic approach, such as those proposed by Jean Watson and Madeleine Leininger, are very appealing to me. These thinkers take into account not just the bodily health of a person, but but the emotional and spiritual health of that individual as well. Her approach, which was first published in 1979, is based only on compassion and incorporates spiritual components into nursing practice. Watson describes the individual as “a relationship between the mind, the body, and the soul.” Effective caring promotes health as well as the development of the person or family. The faith and hope concept proposed by Watson is also important in the carative and curstive processes, among other things. When contemporary science is unable to provide any more relief to the patient, faith and hope can provide a sense of well-being via the adoption of beliefs that are relevant to the individual. …
  • Except for the fact that nightingale was more concerned with nurses controlling the atmosphere for the benefit of the patient, I did not see any significant distinctions. Watson’s thesis was based on the environment and saw the well-being of a person as a mix of the body, the intellect, and the spirit. Watson’s philosophy tries to restore harmony to the patient by interacting with him or her in a good manner. A nurse’s devotion to her patients and their relationship with them is what caring is all about. In order to care for patients, a nurse must first take care of herself. …
  • Dorothea E. Orem dedicated her life to the creation and development of a theoretical framework that would improve nursing practice (SmithParker, 2015). According to Orem’s thesis, each person has the ability, right, and responsibility to look after himself or herself in the long run. She was able to observe treatment from the patient’s point of view, in which people provide self-care while receiving varying degrees of assistance from health-care providers. A foundational component of her philosophy is the belief that each human possesses the ability to care for their own and others’ wellness. Four components of self-care were covered by the speaker, including the theory of self-care, the theory of dependent care, the theory of self-care deficiency, and the theory of nursing systems. …
  • Nurses must establish a strong connection with their own soul as well as the spirit of the patient in order to provide effective care. Nurses that follow Watson’s caring model are concerned about the individuality of each patient and will go to any length to ensure that the dignity of the patient is preserved. Nurses that practice transpersonal caring will build an intentional connection with the patients they serve. After that, I began to question myself about what nursing means to me, how it is guiding my practice, what I want to accomplish as a nurse, and how I can make a significant impact in the lives of those who are working in the healthcare field. Understanding the most fundamental links between human people, their health, and their surroundings is essential in providing care for them and their environment. Care is defined as being fully attentive to each other’s needs and wants. My basic nursing concept is to provide care to each person by recognizing them as distinct and unique people, regardless of where they live, where they belong, what caste they belong to, what religion they practice, or what race they are. Consequently, my nursing philosophy statement is as follows: “Being there for someone when they are in need and serving them by all feasible means in line with the professional standards and code of conduct for Nursing, irrespective of who they are and where they belong.
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Peplau’s Theory Of Interpersonal Relationships In Nursing.

Trust is a critical component of the nurse-patient interaction, and it has a direct impact on the patient’s overall well-being. Nursing trust relationships may be developed over a long period of time or in a short period of time depending on how well the client’s needs are met, rather than the nurse’s, and how well the nurse is accountable for creating and keeping boundaries with the patient. Elaborate On the first day of orientation at the Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research (Ajman), I see that the client walks into a room with a doctor and an educator with a smile on her face and no sign of worry.

My opinion is that trust is the most critical factor in this relationship because nursing practice relies on it.

The nurse-patient relationship, according to Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relations in nursing, is divided into four phases: the orientation phase, the identification phase, the exploitation phase, and the resolution phase.

Researchers Trojan and Yonge developed a g theory study (Strauss and CorbinMethod) in 1993 that was connected to the establishment of trusting relationships.

Interpersonal Relationships: The Cornerstone of Psychiatric Nursing

Jeffrey S. Jones is an American lawyer who practices in the United States. Joyce J. Fitzpatrick is a writer and editor based in New York City. 1.Specify the nature of interpersonal connections. 2. Identify the two most prevalent interpersonal models in mental nursing practice and describe them. Consider Hildegard Peplau’s stages of the interpersonal process and how they differ from one another. 6.Identify three major principles related with Joyce Travelbee’s Human-to-Human Relationship Theory and explain how they relate to Peplau’s interpersonal process.

  1. Discuss the significance of these theories in the professional practice of psychiatric and mental health nursing.
  2. For every interpersonal connection to flourish, the individual must first get a fundamental awareness of himself or herself and what he or she can offer to the table in the partnership.
  3. The relationship that nurses develop with their patients is believed to be the foundation for all other aspects of nursing practice, including patient care.
  4. A reflection and integration of this connection is mirrored and incorporated into the plan of treatment for each patient, regardless of their age, culture, or socioeconomic background.
  5. The nurse, on the other hand, must establish interpersonal ties with the patient’s family and other important persons in the patient’s immediate environment.
  6. In order to do this, nurses must learn how to establish relationships with patients and develop skills for strengthening contact between the nurse, the patient’s family, and other significant persons in the patient’s life.
  7. In the field of nursing, a number of interpersonal models have been established.

Hildegard Peplau and Joyce Travelbee’s theories are summarized in the following paragraphs.

Nursing in the field of psychiatric-mental health is dependent on the ability to handle interpersonal connections effectively.

PEPLAUHildegard E.

The “mother” of mental nursing has been referred to as well as “the psychiatric nurse of the century,” according to an authorized biography written by Callaway (2002).

During her professional career, she held positions such as president of the American Nurses Association (ANA) and then executive director of the ANA.

In 1997, she was awarded the Christine Reimann Prize, which is the greatest honor bestowed by this organization.

The Rutgers University School of Nursing in New Jersey awarded her the distinction of inventing the nation’s first master’s degree clinical nurse specialist program in psychiatric-mental health nursing.

Background Information on the Author In Reading, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 1909, Hildegard E.

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She lived to be 89 years old until she passed away in 1999.

She was the second of five children in a family of five.

Peplau performed admirably throughout her school years, and she opted to pursue a profession in nursing in order to further her education while also providing a means of earning her own place in the world.

1-1 Illustration of the concept Hildegard E.

Peplau.

Sullivan’s theory of personality defined personality as action in the context of others.

Sullivan’s work had a significant impact on Peplau, who stressed the importance of fundamental necessities as well as anxiety.

Following her military duty, she went on to earn a master’s degree from Columbia University in 1947 and a doctorate in teaching from the University of Michigan in 1953.

For the years 1948 to 1953, she was the director of the graduate program in mental nursing at Columbia Teachers College.

Despite the fact that the book was finished in 1948, it was not released until 1952.

One of the most remarkable aspects of her book was that it was one of the first nursing books to be written by a nurse without the participation of a physician as coauthor.

The Theory of Interpersonal Relationships developed by Peplau Peplau regarded nursing as an interpersonal process involving two or more people that is geared toward the achievement of a therapeutic objective.

The environment also has a significant impact on human development (Peplau, 1992).

Anxiety is a crucial component in Peplau’s thesis, as is fear.

The work of Sullivan and his interpersonal theory served as a foundation for her studies, which identified distinct levels of anxiety and their impact on an individual.

Peplau thought that the interpersonal skills of nurses were vital in aiding patients to restore their health and well-being after an illness.

Peplau emphasized the importance of nurses being able to recognize and experience within themselves the emotions that others are transmitting vocally or nonverbally to them.

Using this insight and self-awareness, nurses may then aid others in recognizing and resolving their own difficulties.

In order to support patients in detecting difficulties and working toward attaining health and well-being, nurses, according to Peplau, must incorporate an understanding of their own habits and self-awareness.

Peplau first identified four steps in the interpersonal process: the orientation phase, the identification phase, the exploitation phase, and the resolution phase.

Later on, these four steps were reduced into three stages: the orientation phase, the working phase, and the terminating phase (see Figure 1).

Figure 2-2 depicts a four-stage model of the aging process.

This phase encompasses the first point of interaction between the nurse and the patient.

Nurses identify themselves, as well as the goal and nature of the interaction with their patients and clients.

Throughout the dialogue, Peplau emphasizes that the patient is the primary emphasis.

The patient expresses his or her requirements, asks questions, and provides information with the healthcare team.

The nurse, while acting as a participant observer, draws on his or her understanding of influencing variables and considers the patient’s prior experiences, values, beliefs, cultural background, and expectations.

This awareness of one’s own identity is critical in a healthy romantic relationship.

Orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution were the four steps of the interpersonal process outlined by Peplau in his original research.

After doing more study, Peplau integrated the phases of identification and exploitation into a single phase, which he dubbed the “working phase.” According to the notion developed by J.

The nurse and the patient first meet as complete strangers at the start of the orientation phase, but as their interaction develops, the nature of the problem becomes apparent.

As a result, the patient begins to acquire a sense of belonging as well as the ability to cope with the current challenges.

Identification This phase is marked by the patient’s recognition of his or her health-care needs, for which the nurse can give aid.

The nurse, on the other hand, recognizes that the patient has identified his or her own needs and has placed the nurse in the role of care provider in response.

During their time together, the patient and the nurse establish shared goals and begin collaborating to meet the patient’s requirements.

Exploitation A large portion of the work in the nurse–patient relationship is completed during this phase, with patients taking full use of the nursing services that are available to them throughout this phase.

As part of this phase, both the nurse and the patient must work together to establish expectations and goals, as well as describe the work to be done based on an assessment of the patient’s requirements.

This period necessitates open communication between the nurse and the patient, which involves a trusting connection between the two.

A strong bond develops between the nurse and patient during this phase, as the patient begins to take responsibility for his or her own health and wellness objectives.

In the nurse–patient relationship, however, this move to more responsibility may be the most challenging stage.

When their customers are no longer reliant on them, health care workers, particularly nurses, might experience difficulties in their interpersonal interactions.

(See Chapter 4 for further information on establishing and maintaining health boundaries in therapeutic partnerships.) The patient develops independence as the exploitation phase progresses, despite the fact that the patient is initially reliant on the nurse.

R.

Recovery in depressed women: A study based on Peplau’s theory of recovery Nursing Science Quarterly, vol.

3, pp.

This study was guided by Peplau’s theory of nursing.

The findings indicated that the process of recovering consisted of three phases: (a) a turning point and professional support; (b) determination, support of family and friends, and successes; and (c) self-esteem and maintaining balance.

APPLICATION TO PRACTICE Nurses need to understand the dynamic nature of the recovery process and help individuals who have experienced depression move through the phases of recovery.

QUESTIONS TO PONDER 1.How prevalent is the problem of depression among women?

3.Describe the role that the professional nurse can play in the recovery process based on Peplau’s theory.

The nurse’s evaluation of the patient’s readiness to move through termination of the relationship is crucial to resolution.

The patient assumes the power to meet his or her needs and set new goals. However, if the relationship is terminated prematurely, the patient may relapse and thus require a rebuilding of the therapeutic relationship.

Hildegard Peplau Theory Analysis – 392 Words

The author, Jeffrey S. Jones, is an American businessman. Joyce J. Fitzpatrick is a professional writer and editor based in New York. Determine the nature of interpersonal relationships. 2. Identify the two most prevalent interpersonal models in psychiatric nursing practice and discuss them. Talk about Hildegard Peplau’s stages of the interpersonal process and how they relate to each other. In this section, you will learn how to:4.Explain the six roles that nurses may assume during Peplau’s interpersonal process5.Relate Peplau’s stages of the interpersonal process with the steps of the nursing process6.Identify the three key concepts associated with Joyce Travelbee’s Human-to-Human Relationship Theory.

  1. Discuss the significance of these theories in the professional practice of psychiatric-mental health nursing.
  2. 9.Apply the theories of Peplau and Travelbee to the delivery of patient care in the clinical setting.10.Incorporate the models of interpersonal relationships into professional psychiatric nursing practice.
  3. A person’s interpersonal relationship is built on his or her ability to observe, assess, communicate, and evaluate others.
  4. Communication skills, which include both verbal and nonverbal communication, are the second most important skills to have.
  5. Establishing a nurse-patient relationship is one of the nurse’s primary goals, regardless of the patient’s health status, which can range from healthy individuals living in the community to critically or terminally ill patients.
  6. It is commonly assumed that the one-to-one relationship between the nurse and the patient constitutes the interpersonal relationship in nursing.
  7. Nursing interventions in the field of psychiatric-mental health nursing are founded on interpersonal relationships.

Introduction to interpersonal relationships is covered in detail in this chapter, and it serves as a foundation for the remainder of the book.

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Several prominent nursing theories are discussed, with a focus on the interpersonal relationship as a central concept in both of them.

When two or more people come together, they form interpersonal relationships.

HILDEGARD E.

Peplau is widely regarded as the “founding mother” of psychiatric-mental health nursing theory and practice.

The nursing community, both nationally and internationally, is well aware of her contributions to psychiatric nursing, as well as the fact that she is an activist in the nursing field in general.

She also served on the International Council of Nurses’ board of directors (ICN).

Dr.

The Rutgers University School of Nursing in New Jersey was the site of the first master’s degree clinical nurse specialist program in psychiatric-mental health nursing, which she was responsible for creating.

Background Information on the Authors In Reading, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 1909, Hildegard E.

She lived to be 89 years old when she died in 1999.

As the second of five children, she had a difficult upbringing.

While in school, Peplau demonstrated exceptional performance; as a result, she chose a career as a nurse to further her education while also providing a means of establishing herself in the world.

1-1 Illustration 2-11 Ms.

Peplau’s full name is Hildegard Elizabeth Peplau, and she was born in the town of Peplau, in the province of Luxembourg.

The behavior of a person in relation to others was defined by Sullivan’s theory.

Sullivan’s work had a significant influence on Peplau, who emphasized the importance of basic needs and anxiety in his work as well.

A master’s degree in education from Columbia University was awarded to her after her military service, and a doctorate in education was awarded to her after her service.

From 1948 to 1953, she was the director of the Columbia Teachers College graduate program in psychiatric nursing.

Despite the fact that the book was finished in 1948, it was not released until 1952.

As one of the first nursing books written by a nurse without a physician as a coauthor, her book was widely regarded as unique in the nursing field.

In his theory of interpersonal relationships, Peplau describes how people interact with one another.

The achievement of therapeutic goals is accomplished through the deliberate actions of the nurse, which take place in a sequence of phases.

The environment included factors such as culture, adult presence, economic status, and the prenatal environment, as well as interactions between the patient and others, such as family, parents, or a nurse, amongst other things.

The topic of anxiety is covered in greater depth in Chapter 13.

The importance of nurses recognizing and intervening appropriately to improve a patient’s state was emphasized by Peplau.

These interpersonal competencies are founded on the nurse’s ability to recognize and comprehend his or her own behavior.

Anxiety and panic are the most common emotions associated with these thoughts.

The development of self-awareness is discussed in greater detail inChapter 3.

The Interpersonal Process is divided into three phases.

Later on, these four stages were reduced to three: the orientation phase, the working phase, and the termination phase (Peplau, 1988, 1997).

Orientation It is the ORIENTATION PHASE that marks the start of Peplau’s interpersonal process.

During this phase, the patient seeks medical assistance from a professional.

When the patient is in this orientation phase, the nurse also communicates to him or her the temporal dimension of their relationship; that is, he or she informs the patient about the amount of time available for therapeutic interaction.

The nurse does not need to provide any personal information.

During this phase of the relationship, the nurse observes the patient and makes assessments of the patient’s health and needs.

As part of this awareness, the nurse considers his or her own personal experiences, values, beliefs, culture, preconceived notions, and expectations; evaluates himself or herself; and considers how these may impact the nurse–patient interaction.

Diagram 2:2 Relationships according to the paradigm developed by Peplau Orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution were the first four steps of the interpersonal process recognized by Peplau.

According to J.

The nurse and the patient initially meet as complete strangers at the start of the orientation phase, but as their interaction develops, the nature of the problem becomes apparent.

Later, the patient begins to feel more at ease with themselves and with their capacity to cope with the current issues.

Identification This phase is marked by the patient’s recognition of his or her own health-care requirements, which the nurse can then address.

When the patient identifies his or her own requirements, the nurse recognizes that the patient has placed the nurse in the role of care giver.

During their time together, the patient and the nurse build shared goals and begin collaborating to meet the patient’s requirements.

Exploitation A large portion of the work in the nurse–patient relationship is completed during this phase, with patients taking full use of the nursing services that are available to them during this time.

As part of this phase, both the nurse and the patient must continue to communicate about expectations and goals, as well as the work that needs to be done in response to identified patient requirements.

This period necessitates open communication between the nurse and the patient, which necessitates a trusting connection between them.

During this period, the interaction between the nurse and the patient is particularly intensive, as the patient begins to assume responsibility for his or her own health objectives.

In the nurse–patient relationship, however, this move to more responsibility may be the most challenging stage.

An problem with the border may be indicated.

After a period of being reliant on the nurse, the patient gradually gains the ability to function independently as the exploitation phase advances.

R.

Using Peplau’s theory to investigate recovery in depressed women nursing science quarterly, volume 6, number 3, pages 140–146 In conclusion, depression is a significant problem for women today.

The author conducted in-depth interviews with seven women who had previously been hospitalized for depression and were now on the mend as a result of her research.

PROPOSAL FOR USE IN PRACTICE To assist individuals who have suffered from depression in moving through each phase of recovery, nurses must understand the dynamic nature of the recovery process and the stages of recovery.

QUESTIONS FOR THE PONDERER How common is depression among women, and how severe is it?

Following Peplau’s theory, describe the role that a professional nurse can play in the recovery process.

Resolution It is during the RESOLUTION PHASE of the relationship that the patient’s needs have been met as a result of the collaborative efforts of the nurse and the patient.

In the course of a successful termination, the patient drifts away from the nurse and realizes that he or she is capable of managing on his or her own.

The patient takes on the responsibility of meeting his or her own needs and setting new goals. Alternatively, if the therapeutic connection is discontinued prematurely, the patient may experience a relapse and require a re-establishment of the therapeutic alliance.

Are nursing theories holistic?

Nurses’ ideas, despite professing to give models of holistic nursing care, do not fully address the spiritual dimension of human existence. This article examines numerous nursing theories in order to determine which of them integrate holism and, if they do, whether the theorist’s notion of holism incorporates spirituality in some form or another. Doi:10.7748/ns141737s46 (Nursing Standard, 14th edition, pages 37-41).

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