What is the connection between science and spirituality?
- It can be challenging to weave science and spirituality together. Spirituality is universally connective in the realization that suffering is a part of human existence. Science and tough-minded folks often try to downplay the role that innate spiritual practice has on wellbeing.
- 1 Is there a conflict between science and religion?
- 2 How does science and religion relate to each other?
- 3 What does spiritual transcendence mean?
- 4 How does the word logos mentioned in the Gospel of John relate to the human ability to understand the world?
- 5 When did science and religion conflict?
- 6 How do science and religion contradict each other?
- 7 How was religion and science a source of conflict in the 1920s?
- 8 How did society shape science and how did science shape society?
- 9 Is the relationship between science and religion important?
- 10 What is the connection between transcendence and spirituality?
- 11 What is transcendence in simple words?
- 12 What is transcendence and example?
- 13 What does the word transcendent mean and how is it related to religious beliefs?
- 14 What does logos mean in science?
- 15 What are some reasons for thinking that a transcendent realm exists?
- 16 The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment
- 17 Abstract
- 18 Introduction
- 19 The Alleged Conflict between Science and Faith
- 20 Some Great Saints as Examples of Fruitful Coexistence between Faith and Reason
- 21 Concluding Remarks
- 22 Biographies
- 23 Endnotes
- 24 References
- 25 Transcendence – Mythos/Logos
- 26 dualism
- 27 Nature and significance
Is there a conflict between science and religion?
Some 59% of Americans say science and religion are often in conflict, while 38% say the two are mostly compatible. The share saying that science and religion often conflict is up modestly from 55% in a 2009 Pew Research survey, while the share saying the two are mostly compatible has stayed the same at 38%.
How does science and religion relate to each other?
Science focuses on testable claims and hypotheses, whereas religion focuses on individual beliefs. The “science and religion” movement emphasizes dialogue and contact, saying that science and religion should work with each other, rather than be at odds or studying different areas.
What does spiritual transcendence mean?
Transcendence comes from the Latin prefix trans-, meaning “beyond,” and the word scandare, meaning “to climb.” When you achieve transcendence, you have gone beyond ordinary limitations. The word is often used to describe a spiritual or religious state, or a condition of moving beyond physical needs and realities.
How does the word logos mentioned in the Gospel of John relate to the human ability to understand the world?
How does the word mentioned in the Gospel of John relate to the human ability to understand the world? The word mentioned is “word” which means logos (study or reason). It is saying that God created everything through his reason and plan.
When did science and religion conflict?
The idea that science and religion are at war with one another is actually fairly recent. It really only arose in the last third of the nineteenth century, after the publication of Darwin’s book on evolution.
How do science and religion contradict each other?
Religion and science are fundamentally incompatible. They disagree profoundly on how we obtain knowledge of the world. Science is based observation and reasoning from observation. Religion assumes that human beings can access a deeper level of information that is not available by either observation or reason.
How was religion and science a source of conflict in the 1920s?
Briefly explain ONE example of how religion and science were a source of conflict in American society during the 1920s. The great argument was between fundamentalism and modernism. The Scopes monkey trial was a fight where Tennessee outlawed the teaching of science in a science book.
How did society shape science and how did science shape society?
Society came together to help shape science in various ways by researching a need that was not yet created. science helped others visualize what’s possible so that people who did not know the results could create more for the needs not yet created.
Is the relationship between science and religion important?
The historical reality is that science and religion have more often been complementary to each other, and the relationship has been dynamic. Science and religion are both important facets of modern life, and many of the questions in this series deal with issues that are at the intersection of science and religion.
What is the connection between transcendence and spirituality?
Spiritual transcendence refers to a perceived experience of the sacred that affects one’s self-perception, feelings, goals, and ability to transcend one’s difficulties.
What is transcendence in simple words?
Transcendence is the quality of being able to go beyond normal limits or boundaries.
What is transcendence and example?
Transcending; surpassing; excelling; extraordinary. The definition of transcendent is extraordinary or beyond human experience. Talking to God is an example of a transcendent experience.
In religion, transcendence is the aspect of a deity’s nature and power that is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws. Thus, a god may transcend both the universe and knowledge (is beyond the grasp of the human mind).
What does logos mean in science?
Logos is an appeal to logic, which again most scientists are pretty good at. The scientific method brings a structure to how science is done, which is then reflected in how papers and other communications include clear hypotheses, results and discussions.
What are some reasons for thinking that a transcendent realm exists?
When one asks if life or creation has any purpose, it is referring to the discovery of any “ultimate meaning,” which is a meaning that no other human being can give to another. What are some reasons to conclude that a transcendent realm exists? Moral law, personal experience, and reason and truth.
The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment
February, 2015; 82(1): 3–7. Linacre, Quentin.
As illustrated by the great saints of the Catholic Church, the purpose of this editorial is to demonstrate that a healthy connection between science and religious belief is really feasible. It begins with definitions of science and religion, and then goes on to explain why there appears to be a contradiction between the two concepts. Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, serve as examples of how a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities can be achieved.
The conclusion of this editorial includes a brief discussion of whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith.
Current academic discourse frequently refers to a supposed contradiction and incompatibility between scientific discovery and religious belief, as well as between being a scientist and believing in anything. Any scientist who wished to engage in a discussion with the religious community would almost certainly be derided by his or her peers. The purpose of this editorial is to demonstrate that a harmonious, complementary, and fruitful cohabitation between faith and real science (i.e., science led by reason) has actually been feasible—and continues to be possible in the modern era of reason and science.
A Definition of Science
Let us begin by defining what is meant by the term “science” in the first place. A scientific endeavor1 is defined as any human action that aims to get trustworthy knowledge of the causes and principles of things (Cortés and Alfaro 2013). Man’s quest to grasp the natural world, comprehend the cosmos to which he belongs, and therefore explain to himself his longing for transcendence is the origin of science. In order to satisfy his need to immerse himself in the world, disclose the unknown, and conquer it (Cortés and Alfaro 2013), man wants to satisfy his urge to conquer the unknown.
According to Aristotle, the pursuit for knowledge is motivated by man’s respect for all that surrounds him; science, in this broad sense, should be regarded as natural philosophy in its broadest sense.
A Definition of Faith
In accordance with our approach, we must now define “faith”2; but, in order to do so, one must first embrace an anthropology that accepts the presence of levels in man that are distinct from the simply material levels. To put it another way, it is vital to affirm the spiritual and transcendent quality of human existence. A great need for eternity is connaturally implied by this dimension, which is reflected in the pursuit for Truth through the intellectual capacities of man: memory, comprehension, and volition, among other things (cf.Aquinas 1947).
From an ontological and dynamic viewpoint, Saint John of the Cross (1542–1591),Doctor Mysticus, describes faith as the supernatural way of achieving unity of the understanding with God, enabling this capacity to participate in Divinity (John of the Cross 2009;Wojtyla 1979).
It is the teachings of Saint John of the Cross that faith does not reject the power of knowing, but rather that faith brings understanding to its full capacity, allowing it to explore the mystery of the created (John of the Cross 2009).
The Alleged Conflict between Science and Faith
According to Carroll (2003), science and faith, when considered in the context of one another, should have been twin foundations of civilisation. For the time being, however, the scientific community does not see a clear connection between the two. One possible explanation is that Descartes’s statement “I think, therefore I am” (Je pense, donc je suis, Descartes 1637), which is a fundamental element of Western rationalism, has been misinterpreted by many scientists from the Enlightenment to the present day, reducing human nature to mere intelligence and, as a result, reducing him to the status of a thing.
- The subsequent schism between faith and reason did irreparable harm not just to religion, but also to civilization as a result of the division.
- As Nobel laureate Francis C.
- On the other side, there is creationism, which is a system of beliefs that holds that the Earth and every living thing on it started as a result of an act of creation done by one or more divine entities in accordance with a divine intention (Hayward 1998).
- Accordingly, creationism should be taught in high school science classes as a legitimate alternative to evolution, according to fundamentalists and creationists (who are not the same) (Yahr 2008).
With this in mind, it is important to recall Saint John Paul II’s explicit reference to this dichotomy in his Encyclical LetterFides et ratio: “I make this strong and insistent appeal that faith and philosophy recover the profound unity that allows them to stand in harmony with their nature without compromising their mutual autonomy.” (1998, St.
A fruitful and instructive interaction between religion and reason, on the other hand, has been a distinguishing quality of numerous notable Christian philosophers, as will be briefly discussed below.
Some Great Saints as Examples of Fruitful Coexistence between Faith and Reason
First and foremost, we will refer to Saint Albert the Great (1206–1280), Doctor Universalis and “patron saint of natural scientists” (Ortega 2010), whose humility and selfless intellectual endeavors served as an inspiration for a number of disciples, including Saint Thomas Aquinas. Saint Albert the Great (1206–1280) was a Doctor Universalis and “patron saint of natural scientists.” His numerous contributions include his claim that the Earth was round, a thorough description of plant morphology, and the discovery of the element arsenic in the realm of chemistry (cf.Ortega 2010;Reed 1980;Valderas 1987).
He directly oversaw the “incurabili” (incurable) patients at the hospital, where he had been stationed for a number of years before being promoted.
Her name was Edith Stein (1891–1942), and she was a German Carmelite who was known as Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, co-patroness of Europe.
Although she began her career as an agnostic philosopher who adhered to phenomenology, she eventually converted to Catholicism after a lengthy time of discernment.
“He who seeks the truth, whether he is aware of it or not, seeks God,” says Stein; for philosophy, the meaning of faith is twofold: if a truth is reached that cannot be accessed by any other means, philosophy cannot deny such facts of faith without relinquishing its claim as universal truth, and moreover, without risking its inherent knowledge being tainted by error; due to the organic interdependence of truth, if separate truths are discovered, they cannot be reconcil As a result, philosophy is dependent on religion for its tangible existence.
In order to deliver the greatest accessible truth, philosophy must first acknowledge that religion is the source of man’s highest certainty, and then assume ownership of that certainty by adopting a faith-based approach.
This also explains why philosophy has a formal dependency on religion in the first place.
Based on the preceding, the activity of these saints demonstrates that it is possible to transcend scientific reductionism, which is founded on an incorrect interpretation of the phrase “I think, therefore I am.” As a result, such reductionism is in direct opposition to the integrated character of the human person, in which the spiritual component is a vital component. In a similar vein, absolute creationism will place the emphasis solely on man’s spiritual component, limiting the potential of discovering the truth via contemplation of creation through knowledge.
This collaboration between the natural sciences and religion, as well as collaboration between the natural sciences and theology, is described by Vicua (2002).
Professor of physiology and physiopathology at the Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins in Santiago, Chile, and postdoctoral researcher at the Reproductive Health Research Institute (RHRI) in Santiago, Chile, Dr. Manuel E. Cortés has a Ph.D. in physiology and physiopathology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Juan Pablo del Ro is now pursuing a degree in medicine and surgery at the Universidad de los Andes in Santiago, Chile, while also studying philosophy at the same time. The RHRI is located in Santiago, Chile, and Dr.
- She is also the medical director of the RHRI.
- Vigil is also a member of the Pontifical Academy for Life in Vatican City, as well as the president of Teen STAR International, among other positions.
- Cortés, Departamento de Ciencias Qumicas y Biológicas, Universidad Bernardo O’Higgins, General Gana 1702, Santiago, Chile, is the best person to contact for further information about the authors.
1 Science is derived from the Latin wordscientia, which means knowledge, and is derived from the verbscire, which means to know (cf.Eto 2008). However, the root of the term “science” may be traced back to the Indo-European termkei, which refers to the ability to cut or separate one object from another in order to discern between them. As a result, both from an epistemological and historical standpoint, science has been strongly associated with the process of distinguishing one thing from another in order to better understand it since the beginning of time.
2 According to its etymology, “faith” derives from the Latinfids, which is linked to the Proto-Indo-European word*b h eyd h, which literally means “to trust.”
- Summa Theologica, by Saint Thomas Aquinas, published in 1947. Hayes Barton Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
- Ayala, F.J., 2007. Darwin and the Theory of Intelligent Design. Alianza Editorial
- Carroll, W.E. 2003. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. The Science of Natural Sciences and the Science of Creation Santo Tomás de Aquino is now in the news. Cortés, M.E., and Alfaro, A.A. (2013). Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Universidad Católica de Chile
- Cortés, M.E., and Alfaro, A.A. (2013). Some thoughts on the epistemological and historical foundations of science: some preliminary thoughts. Crick, F. (1994), Revista Chilena de Educación Cientifica12:49–57
- Revista Chilena de Educación Cientifica12:49–57
- Crick, F. (1994). The mind-boggling hypothesis: a scientific investigation into the nature of consciousness. New York: Scribner
- s Descartes R.1637. Pour properly guide his or her reasoning and seek the truth in the sciences, the Méthode offers a discourse on the subject. Ian Maire and Eto H. (2008) published a book in Leiden. Definition of science according to the scientific method: In what ways are the humanities more scientific than the quantitative and social sciences? Hayward J.L. 1998, Scientometrics, 76: 23–42
- Hayward J.L. An annotated bibliography on the origins/evolution dispute. Scarecrow Press/Salem Press, Lanham, MD
- Saint John of the Cross, ed. 2009
- Saint John of the Cross, ed. Ascension to the top of Mount Carmelo. Completed Works of Art 151-432. San Juan de la Cruz, Mexico. Published by Editorial de Espiritualidad in Madrid in 1998 under the title “John Paul II.” Faith and reason: The Supreme Pontiff, John Paul II, addressed an encyclical letter to the bishops of the Catholic Church on the link between faith and reason, which is titled Fides et ratio.
- John Paul1999Address to a meeting of rector of academic institutions held in Torun, Poland on June 7, 1999
- Moscati G.1906La salda d’Amido iniettata nell’organismo nota 2: Ritenzione dell’amido e trasformazione in glicogeno: ricerche sperimentali del Dott. Giuseppe Moscati. Washington, DC: Veritas
- Atti della R. Accademia Medico-Chirurgica di Napoli2: 1–12
- Moscati G.1907. Atti della R. Accademia Medico-Chirurgica di Napoli2: 1–12
- Moscati G.1907. The movement of the glicogeno in the placenta, as well as the mechanism of its scomparsa following the emission of the sperm. Dr. Giuseppe Moscati’s sperimental researches on the value of medicine in the legal system. 1–11
- Ortega, L.2010. Atti della R. Accademia Medico-Chirurgica di Napoli2: 1–11
- Accademia Medico-Chirurgica di Napoli2: 1–11. Alberto Magno is known as the “Patrón de los Cientificos.” Reed, K. (1980), Revista de Qumica PUCP24:26–30
- Reed, K. (1980). Albert’s natural philosophy of plant life is discussed in detail. InAlbertus magnus and the sciences: Commemorative essays. ed. J.A. Weisheipl, 341–5. The Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in Toronto published E. Stein’s Erkenntnis und Glaube in 1993. Herder, E., and Stein, E., 2003, “The Structure of the Human Person.” Freiburg: Herder & Stein. The Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos in Madrid published Valderas, J.M. in 1987. The study of plant anatomy at San Alberto Magno. Botanical Journal of the Royal Society of Barcelona 17: 125–34
- Vicua R.2002. Natural sciences and theology: A collaborative effort. Teologa y Vida43: 53–73
- Wojtyla K.1979.La Fe Segundo San Juan de la Cruz. Teologa y Vida43: 53–73
- Wojtyla K.1979. Yahr, M.G. (ed. ), Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, Madrid, 2008. Is there evidence of “intelligent design” in the origins of life, or is there none? Is this a scientific controversy, or just a misunderstanding? Interciencia33: 165–6
- Interciencia34: 165–6
Transcendence – Mythos/Logos
The term “transcendence” or “the transcendent” appears in a variety of religious works, and you may have noticed how frequently it appears. However, when the term “transcendence” is used, it is frequently not defined very clearly, if at all. A number of references to transcendence can be found in theCatechism of the Catholic Church, but it is not entirely clear what transcendence entails, other than a reference to the infinite greatness of God and the fact that God is “the inexpressible,” “the incomprehensible,” “the invisible,” and the “ungraspable.” This ambiguity is frustrating to individuals who place a high importance on reason and specific reasoning.
Unbelievably, there was no article for “transcendence” in the fifteen-volumeCatholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914), while there was one for “transcendentalism,” which is an entirely secular philosophy with many different schools and interpretations.
“Transcendence” is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as “the action or reality of transcending, surmounting, or rising above.; exceeding, surpassing; also the condition or character of being transcendent, surpassing eminence or excellence.” The use of the word “excellence” is perhaps essential to comprehending what “transcendence” is about.
I believe that this is true.
And, despite the fact that the behavior of the Greek gods was frequently questionable from a moral standpoint, the Greek gods were still regarded as the givers of wisdom, order, justice, love, and all of the institutions of human civilization, despite the fact that their behavior was often questionable.
- It is simple to observe that rocks, plants, stars, animals, and humans exist in their natural environments.
- It will always be out of grasp for us.
- God’s transcendence refers to His greater essence, but God’s immanence refers to God as He is now working in reality, i.e., in the universe as a whole.
- It should come as no surprise that the majority of scientists who believe in God hold to a more impersonal God’s viewpoint, given that their whole lives are devoted to investigating the reality of the cosmos, which appears to work according to a set of laws rather than personal supervision.
Religious belief, according to one well-known atheist, Sigmund Freud, is an illusion, and that religion is nothing more than a mere exercise in “wish fulfillment.” Freud believed that human beings craved love, immortality, and the abolition of misery and pain, and that this led them to seek refuge in religion as a solution to the inevitability of difficulties and constraints of mortal life.
- An alternative point of view was expressed by the American philosopher George Santayana, whose work, Reason in Religion, is widely considered to be one of the very best books ever written on the subject of religion.
- Religion failed only when it attempted to link these creative ideal aims to concrete truths about the universe.
- According to rationalists as well as those who hold on to their religious beliefs, this criterion for assessing religion appears illogical.
- In contrast, I would argue that worship is the act of submitting to ideal purposes, which have worth precisely because they are higher than actually existent objects, and as a result cannot satisfy standard truth tests, which need a correlation to reality, to be valid.
- We observe good in our lives on a regular basis, but we are aware that the particular goods we experience are limited and transient in nature.
- Nevertheless, aren’t it precisely these ideal goals that are sacrosanct, rather than the defective and perishable objects that we see everywhere else?
- There are two phases to rational religion: piety, or allegiance to required circumstances, and spirituality, or devotion to ideal purposes.
These fundamental sanctuaries serve as the foundation for all additional sanctuaries.
Spirituality makes use of the strength it has gained, reshaping what it has received while looking to the future and the ideal.
There were many variants of each myth, and individuals felt free to amend the stories throughout time, adding new gods and goddesses, and altering or removing the tasks and obligations of each deity.
It was not anticipated that any god or goddess would appear in the same way over time, and the appearance of any god or goddess in sculptures or paintings may change greatly.
As a result, idealized aims and qualities such as “Peace,” “Victory,” “Love,” “Democracy,” “Health,” “Order,” and “Wealth” were adored in Greek religion as well.
For this reason, because of the widespread inclination among the ancient Greeks to picture any desired aim or virtue as a person, it is sometimes difficult for historians to determine if a particular statue or temple was intended for an actual goddess/god or was simply a personified symbol.
You would argue that this is excellent as a religious interpretation, but does it make sense to think of imagined transcendent forms as beings or spirits that are capable of bringing about the good and virtues that we seek?
If we sing a song to Zeus, will it help us win a war?
If these gods are not strong individuals or spirits that can hear our pleas or notice our offerings, but are only poetic representations or symbols, then what good are they, and what good is worshiping them, in the first place.
Storms, earthquakes, illness, and all of the other tragedies that have befallen humans from the beginning of time are not changed by prayer in the slightest way.
What worship and prayer may do, if they are oriented toward the right goals, is to assist us in transcending ourselves, making ourselves better individuals, and, as a result, improving our society.
This dynamic picture of reality, I believe, is exactly what we want in order to comprehend the link between the transcendent and the actual world.
The pantheism of Spinoza and Einstein is more reasonable than previous mythology that ascribed natural phenomena to a personal God who created the world in six days and punished wickedness by producing natural disasters.
However, pantheism is a weak foundation for religious belief in the long run.
What was the point of doing so?
After all, the cosmos began as a single point of concentrated energy; after that, space expanded and a few elements such as hydrogen and helium developed; it was only after hundreds of millions of years that the first stars, planets, and other components essential for life began to appear.
When worship is performed properly, it results in worthwhile accomplishments that enhance one’s quality of life.
All knowledge, on the other hand, begins with an imagined transcendent good.
Experimentation with rudimentary forms, followed by refinement on those early primitive efforts, was sparked by this realization.
As a result, we attribute these achievements to reason, while overlooking the imaginative leaps that sparked the development of these fields in the first place.
In religion, dualism is the idea that the universe (or reality) is made up of two fundamental, diametrically opposed, and irreducible principles that account for all that exists. It has played a significant part in the history of thinking and religion throughout history.
Nature and significance
In religious terminology, dualism refers to the belief in two supremely opposing forces or gods, or in two sets of divine or demonic entities, who were responsible for the creation of the universe. It may be easily compared withmonism, which believes that the universe is made up of a single principle such as mind (spirit) or matter; withmonotheism; or with other pluralisms and polytheisms, which believe that a multitude of principles or forces are at work. However, as will be seen below, the issue is not always plain and easy, and it is not always a question of one or two or many, because there are monotheistic, monistic, and polytheistic faiths that include dualistic features.
First and foremost, dualism can be either absolute or relative in nature.
One of the two principles may be drawn from, or presume, the other as a basis; for example, according to theBogomils, a medieval heretical Christian organization, theDevilis a fallen angel who came from God and was the creator of the human body, into which he managed to fool God into infusing asoul.
- As a result, this is definitely a qualified dualism rather than a radical dualism.
- One final contrast, and possibly the most crucial, is that between dialectical dualism and eschatological dualism.
- Ordinarily speaking, dialectical dualism entails an acyclical, or endlessly repeated, interpretation of historical events.
- It envisions a final resolution of the current dualistic state of things, in which evil will be eliminated at the end of a linear history composed of a series of unrepeatable events rather than a cyclical, repetitive history.
In this way, a form of philosophy such as Platonism, which emphasizes on a fundamental harmony in the universe, is more profoundly dualistic, because of its irreducibly dialectical character, than Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, which emphasize the cosmic conflict between two antagonistic principles (good and evil).
While dualism and transcendence are often associated with the doctrine of transcendence —the belief that there is a separate realm or being above and beyond the world —they are not synonymous.
Although religious dualism is commonly associated with the separation or division of God and the world, it is more commonly associated with the doctrine of two fundamental principles.
This doctrine, in turn, is easily reconcilable with forms of monism (for example, Orphism or theAdvaitaschool ofVedanta), which sees multiplicity as merely a fragmentation (or illusory obliteration) of God.